Both products utilized to measure the existence of nonheterosexual themes significantly surpassed this criterion.

For purposes of dependability assessment, the amount of 2 moment periods coded for each adjustable associated with intimate minorities had been summed throughout the periods within an episode to assess the regularity with which same intercourse intimate behavior and mention nonheterosexual intimate problems took place within each system episode. This summing led to converting nominal data (i.e., presence/absence) during the 2 moment interval degree into regularity counts at the system degree (wide range of periods by which sex that is same behavior took place in the episode). Consequently, the dependability analyses utilized the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The ICC is an evaluation associated with percentage of variance within the measures owing to coder agreement corrected for opportunity. For period information including the regularity matters used right right right here, the ICC is the same as Krippendorf’s alpha (Krippendorf, 1980).

An ICC of .70 had been utilized due to the fact criterion for appropriate dependability. Both things utilized to measure the existence of nonheterosexual themes considerably surpassed this criterion. The ICC for exact same intercourse behavior that is sexual .97 in 12 months 1 and .99 in 12 months 2. The ICC for speak about nonheterosexual intimate dilemmas ended up being .89 in 12 months 1 and .95 in 12 months 2.

Data Analyses

To respond to the very first collection of research concerns about the prevalence of nonheterosexual product on television, we utilized episode degree information ( e.g., percentages of episodes containing exact same intercourse intimate behavior and containing explore sex pertaining to nonheterosexuals) and chi square analyses to look at between team distinctions with one of these nominal information. When it comes to 2nd collection of research concerns, we utilized just those demonstrates that included nonheterosexual intimate content and evaluated their regularity across 2 moment periods ( ag e.g., wide range of periods per hour of system time with nonheterosexual intimate talk). Of these analyses, we used t tests or analysis of variance (ANOVA) to try group distinctions. Significant f that is omnibus had been followed up with post hoc comparisons utilizing Tamhane’s T2 test, which will not assume equal cellular size or equal variance, to determine significant distinctions across teams.

Results.Prevalence of Nonheterosexual Sexual Content

About one in six programs inside our samples included any content that is sexualbehavior or talk) pertaining to nonheterosexuals. The increase that is slight nonheterosexual intimate content through the 2001 2002 period (14.5%) towards the 2002 2003 period (17.4%) ended up being significant, П‡ 2 (1, N = 2715) = 4.15, p dining dining Table 1 shows the percentage of demonstrates that contained any exact same intercourse intimate behavior and any intimate talk linked to nonheterosexuals by system genres, by form of system, and also by time of day aired. For community kind, the 11 channels had been categorized into certainly one of three groups: commercial broadcast (including the 3 major sites ABC, CBS, and NBC along with Fox, UPN, and WB), cable music activity (including BET and MTV), and premium cable film (including Cinemax, HBO, and Showtime). Pertaining to time of time broadcast, shows airing between 3:00 and 8:00 p.m. had been categorized as late afternoon/early night and those shown between 8:00 and 11:00 p.m. were classified as prime time.

Note: Within form of system and time of day aired, percentages within the exact same column that don’t share subscripts vary at p dining dining dining Table 1 ). More often than not, there is a top level of communication from a genre’s general positions for exact exact same intercourse behavior that is sexual speak about nonheterosexual intimate issues. Also, genres’ standings on these two factors had been fairly stable over the two tv periods.

Three genres had been regularly reduced in both kinds of nonheterosexual sexual content: Children’s cartoons (none of which included sexual behavior or intimate talk linked to nonheterosexuals in a choice of 12 months), news publications (0% for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 3.2per cent and 6.5%, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in 12 months 2), and talk programs (0 and 3.0per cent, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 2.2 and 8.9%, correspondingly, for behavior and talk for 12 months 2). 3 Genres that tended to possess the greatest proportions of programs with nonheterosexual content had been variety/comedy and film that is feature. Created for television films and programs classified as “other” additionally had fairly high proportions with nonheterosexual content that is sexual nonetheless, both these groups included only a small amount of programs (letter = 7), making it tough to draw conclusions about them. Consequently, we do not highlight the findings associated with them although we include these latter two genres in the tables.

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